Isaac Newton 

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Isaac Newton Born 1643 Woolsthorpe, died 1727, London, England Isaac Newton was born into a wealthy family of farmers. He never knew his father, as he died three months before Isaac was born. Isaac's mother remarried fairly soon and left Isaac with his grandmother who raised him. He had an unhappy childhood and showed no promise while he was a young boy attending a grammar school in Grantham. It was Isaac's uncle who seems to had introduced Isaac to learning and persuaded his mother to let him go to a university. Newton entered Trinity College Cambridge in 1661, where he first studied for a law degree. It is here that Newton gained an interest and proficiency in mathematics, mainly from his own interest and extensive reading of mathematical books. Newton is remembered for many discoveries. He formulated his tree laws of motion, the law of gravity, but also discovered, independently of Leibniz, the foundations for differential and integral calculus. He worked on the nature of light, and proposed and constructed a reflecting telescope. He became fellow of the Royal Society in 1672. Newton wrote a full treatment of his scientific works in Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica or Principia as it is known, which is recognised as one of the greatest, if not the greatest modern scientific book.

See about other famous mathematicians here. There is a page with some illustrations from Principia which you can see if you click on the link or the image above. What is calculus? Find out here. See about Leibniz here.
Remember the story about Newton being seated under an apple tree? Well maybe you can pick few apples of knowledge from the mathematical tree below. Click on it and see! 

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